Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Risalah DnT


Seperti mane yg korang dapat dalam email masing-masing.


Click this link!


Syabas DnT. 
RX8, teruskan usaha merealisasikan "The Ultimate Muslim Pharmacists" :)


Tuesday, November 23, 2010

FDA Approves Saxagliptin/Metformin Combo Pill for Type 2 Diabetes

November 16, 2010 — The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the first and only once-daily combination tablet featuring saxagliptin and extended-release (XR) metformin HCl (Kombiglyze XR; Bristol-Myers Squibb Co and AstraZeneca) to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The product represents a new treatment alternative for the nearly 50% of adult patients whose diabetes remains uncontrolled on their current regimen and offers a simplicity that may also enhance therapeutic compliance.
"Patients with type 2 diabetes in the United States can be taking four or five medications for various diseases and conditions, which can lead to complicated medication schedules," said Howard Hutchinson, MD, AstraZeneca's chief medical officer, in a company news release. "Kombiglyze XR combines two effective diabetes medications in a simple once-a-day dose for adult patients who need A1c reductions."
By incorporating the complimentary mechanisms of a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (saxagliptin) and a biguanide (metformin), the combination therapy addresses all 3 key defects in type 2 diabetes: It increases insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis, and improves insulin sensitivity.
"Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, progressive and multi-factorial disease, and over time, patients often require more than one medication to address the multiple defects associated with the disease," said Matthew Mintz, MD, FACP, from the George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, in the news release. "Kombiglyze XR now provides patients with the first once-a-day [dipeptidyl peptidase 4] inhibitor and metformin XR combination tablet containing two complementary therapies that can improve key measures of glucose control including glycosylated hemoglobin levels, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose, in a convenient once-a-day treatment regimen."
Clinical Data
FDA approval was based primarily on data from 2 randomized, double-blind, 24-week, phase 3 clinical trials (n = 1306 and 743, respectively) of saxagliptin and metformin immediate-release (IR), administered as separate tablets, compared with metformin IR alone.
Results from the study of treatment-naive adults showed that use of saxagliptin 5 mg and metformin IR significantly decreased mean hemoglobin A1c levels from baseline compared with metformin IR alone (−2.5% vs −2.0%; P < .0001), significantly increasing the proportion of patients achieving A1c levels below 7% (60% vs 41%; P < .05). Statistically significant reductions in mean fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour postprandial glucose levels were also observed (−60 mg/dL vs −47 mg/dL [P < .05] and −138 mg/dL vs −97 mg/dL [P < .05], respectively).
Similarly, the addition of saxagliptin 2.5 mg and 5 mg to metformin IR among adults inadequately controlled on metformin alone significantly decreased mean A1c levels from baseline by 0.6% and 0.7%, respectively, compared with an increase of 0.1% with metformin alone (P < .0001 for both); both doses significantly increased the proportion of patients with A1c levels below 7% (37% and 44% vs 17%; P < .05 for both comparisons). Statistically significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour postprandial glucose levels were likewise observed (−14 mg/dL and −22 mg/dL vs +1 mg/dL [P < .05]; −62 mg/dL and −58 mg/dL vs −18 mg/dL [P < .05], respectively).
No clinical efficacy or safety study has been conducted specifically with saxagliptin and metformin XR. According to the FDA, metformin XR and IR tablets have a similar rate of absorption (as measured by area under the curve), whereas peak plasma levels of metformin XR are about 20% lower than those of the IR tablets at the same dose.
Data from a double-blind, randomized 24-week study suggest that patients receiving metformin IR therapy may safely be switched to metformin XR once-daily at the same total dose, up to 2000 mg once daily. Glycemic control should be closely managed after the switch, and dosage adjustments made accordingly.
Saxagliptin/metformin XR is available in 5 mg/500 mg, 5 mg/1000 mg, and 2.5 mg/1000 mg strengths. The starting dose should be individualized based on the patient's current regimen and administered with the evening meal, with gradual dose titration to decrease the risk for metformin-related gastrointestinal events (maximum dose, 5 mg/2000 mg).
Adverse Reactions, Drug Interactions, and Contraindications
Coadministration of strong cytochrome P 450 isoenzyme 3A4/5 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole) significantly increases saxagliptin concentrations, necessitating dose limitations to 2.5 mg/1000 mg once daily. Lower doses of concomitantly administered sulfonylureas may be needed to reduce the risk for saxagliptin-related hypoglycemia.
Hypoglycemia was reported in 3.4% of treatment-naive patients receiving saxagliptin 5 mg/metformin IR combination therapy compared with 4.0% of those receiving metformin IR alone. Among treatment-experienced patients, the incidence of reported hypoglycemia for saxagliptin 2.5 mg and saxagliptin 5 mg with metformin IR was 7.8% and 5.8%, respectively, compared with 5.0% for those receiving metformin IR monotherapy.
Adverse events reported in 5% or more of the treatment-naive study patients receiving combination therapy and occurring more commonly than with metformin alone included headache (7.5% vs 5.2%) and nasopharyngitis (6.9% vs 4.0%).
Metformin-related adverse events include diarrhea and nausea/vomiting; saxagliptin may cause respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and headache.
Because of the metformin-related risk for lactic acidosis, patients should be warned against excessive alcohol intake. Treatment with saxagliptin/metformin is not recommended in hepatic impairment and contraindicated in renal impairment. Renal function should be monitored before initiation of therapy and at least annually thereafter; more frequent assessments are recommended for patients at risk for renal impairment, such as the elderly.
Treatment should be temporarily discontinued in patients undergoing radiologic studies with intravascularly administered iodinated contrast materials, and those undergoing surgical procedures associated with restricted intake of food and fluids.
As reported by Medscape Medical News, saxagliptin (Onglyza; Bristol-Myers Squibb Co) previously was approved for use alone or with metformin, a sulfonylurea (eg, glyburide), or a thiazolidinedione (eg, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
More information on this new drug is available on the FDA Web site.

Clinical Implications


  • The FDA has approved saxagliptin/metformin XR tablets at 5 mg/500 mg, 5 mg/1000 mg, and 2.5 mg/1000 mg once daily to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • An individualized dose of saxagliptin/metformin XR should be given once daily with the evening meal and titrated gradually to avoid metformin-related gastrointestinal events (maximum, 5 mg/2000 mg). Dosing should be limited to 2.5 mg/1000 mg daily with concomitant use of strong CYP 3A4/5 inhibitors. Lower doses of coadministered sulfonylureas may be needed to decrease the risk for hypoglycemia.
  • Because of the metformin-related risk for lactic acidosis, patients should be warned against excessive alcohol intake. Treatment with saxagliptin/metformin XR is not recommended in hepatic impairment and is contraindicated in renal impairment. Treatment should be temporarily stopped during certain radiologic studies and for surgical procedures associated with restricted intake of food and fluids.
Taken from MEDSCAPE:  http://cme.medscape.com/viewarticle/732587?src=cmemp&uac=143286FG

Monday, November 22, 2010

Suara DnT

Assalamualaikum.

Setelah banyak tenaga dikerah, alhamdulillah akhirnya kita sudah tamat sem 1 tahun kedua ni. Sekarang kita meniti pula cuti semester selama sebulan ini sebelum masuk ke sem 2 nanti. Mudah-mudahan cuti ini bermanfaat bagi kita dalam usaha mendekatkan diri kepada-Nya agar menjadi insan bertaqwa dan diredai.

Biro DnT kali ini ingin mengajak anda merenung kembali kesilapan-kesilapan lepas yang mungkin kita ada lakukan tanpa disedari. Kadangkala bukan kita sengaja berniat untuk melakukannya, tetapi pengaruh rakan dan pemikiran luar menyebabkan kita mencetuskan sesuatu kesilapan. Adalah mudah jika kesilapan-kesilapan ini dinyatakan terus tanpa berselindung. Saya yang menulis entri ini bukanlah seorang yang sempurna tapi perkongsian ini saya anggap sebagai tazkirah buat diri kita termasuk saya sendiri dalam mempertingkatkan amalan dan mengurangi dari berbuat dosa.

Keseluruhan daripada kita (warga Rx8) adalah pemegang biasiswa JPA. Namun, adakah kita amanah dengan nikmat dan sokongan daripada biasiswa ini? Menolak pengaruh politik (sewajarnya), punca kewangan untuk pembiayaan biasiswa JPA ini adalah daripada rakyat Malaysia sendiri. Adakah kita amanah dengan wang rakyat? Kalau ya, alhamdulillah. Kalau tidak mengapa? Mengapa kita tidak amanah dengan wang rakyat dengan cara malas pergi ke kelas, malas belajar dan sebagainya? Dalam masa yang sama kita sibuk menyalahkan orang lain keranan menyalahgunakan wang rakyat. Saya terpanggil untuk menulis perkara ini apabila teringat luahan seorang blogger (kalau x silap) yang begitu marah dengan pelajar yang mendapat tajaan JPA tapi tak serius belajar.

Kesenangan kadangkala memungkinkan kita leka. Itu adalah realiti. Sedangkan dalam masa yang sama ramai lagi pelajar yang berharap untuk mendapat tajaan tetapi tidak berjaya. Justeru kita yang bertuah ini perlu menggunakan manfaat ini sebaiknya Memang benar lecture kadangkala membosankan dan kita mengantuk. Tapi menghadirkan diri ke kelas dan belajar adalah tanggungjawab kita selangkah kita di alam universiti ini. Menggunakan elaun yang diterima untuk pelbagai kegunaan tidak menjadi persoalan. Setiap individu berhak menggunakannya untuk apa sahaja tujuan selagi ianya tidak menjebakkan diri kepada perkara yang haram.

Perkara lain yang ingin disentuh adalah berkenaan adab dan kehormatan. Ya saya tahu warga Rx8 pandai membuat lawak dan berjenaka. Tiada salahnya. Nabi Muhammad SAW sendiri pun kadangkala bergurau senda. Yang salahnya apabila ianya memasukkan unsur mengata, mangutuk dan mengumpat. Dah macam ada trend kini untuk mengata bila membuat lawak. Bila dah terbiasa oleh semua orang, maka jadilah perkara ni sebagai satu tabiat dalam kalangan kita.

Kita pun tahu apa hukum mengumpat ni. Orang yang dikata dalam jenaka tu agak-agak suka ke dengar bila dimalukan depan orang ramai? Oleh itu jangan jadikannya sebagai kebiasaan tak kiralah sama ada ketika bersembang, status di facebook mahupun di shoutbox blog rx8 ni sendiri (cukup-cukuplah tu).

"Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah suatu kaum mengolok-olokkan kaum yang lain (kerana ) boleh jadi mereka (yang diolok-olokkan) lebih baik dari mereka (yang mengolok-olokkan) dan jangan pula wanita-wanita (mengolok-olokkan) wanita-wanita yang lain (kerana) boleh jadi wanita-wanita (yang diperolok-olokkan) lebih baik dari wanita (yang mengolok-olokkan) dan janganlah kamu mencela dirimu sendiri dan janganlah kamu panggil memanggil dengan gelar-gelar yang buruk. Seburuk-buruk panggilan ialah (panggilan) yang buruk sesudah iman dan barangsiapa yang tidak bertaubat, maka mereka itulah orang-orang yang zalim." (Surah Al-Hujuraat: 11)

Cukup sekadar itu. Sehingga bertemu lagi.
Jazakumullah.

Sunday, November 21, 2010

One Malaysia, One Tazkirah

Salam One Malaysia, One Pharmacy

How are your holiday? Surely best right. I hope that we will make a step ahead (or even many steps) in improving our own character. (beruntunglah orang yang hari esok lebih baik dari hari ini, somebody, please translate for Qarnil huhu).

If our assistant class rep launch the campaign A Drug A Day, I, now officially launch the campaign 'A Tazkirah A Day'. The procedur is as easy as bean, you yourself try to find a tazkirah and try to read + 'tadabbur'(try to understand and practice it). And to increase the effect and impact, let us spread it at facebook.

Saturday, November 13, 2010

JERSEY FOR SISTERS Rx8

allowed me to write in bahasa rojak k....

memandangkan sem depan akan ade bnyk aktvt sukan so ade pemintaan utk jersey bg sisters. masalah skrng disbbkn kekangan mase (interbatch pun bln 12 kn..) dan market availability, jersey yg ade hnyalah lengan pendek. harga tuk masa skrg rm20. warna may b same nge brothers. size indicator fathu (mintk izin gna name fathu...) tuk size M. sesiapa yg nk bleh bg name nge duit skali kt nani b4 hbs trip charity visit esok.

reminder from D&T >>> time pakai nanti korang pakaila proper2 k. pakai inner yg x ketat n labuh kt dlm or bli saiz yg besar sket. =) 

tq~

Friday, November 12, 2010

Rukhsah pesakit... agenda visit.

Solat Bagi Pesakit

gooood news

Salam yaumul jumaat


Alhamdulillah, we managed to get 2 bus for visit, gather at
730 am infront of Talhah 3 on 14th 11 2010.

Pls be punctual since we will have a short briefing before depart.


Syukran all :)

:D :) :D

Thursday, November 11, 2010

latest group 4 "games"



attire: anything yg boleh cover your aurah and boleh jugak berlari (lari anak je pn) :)

p/s: any problem, jus leave ur msg here..



Wednesday, November 10, 2010

info charity visit

salam.

LATEST INFO ABOUT CHARITY VISIT

Date: 14 november 2010

Time assembling: 7.30am (in front of T3)

Venue : Rumah Ehsan Bandar al-muktafibillah Shah
Taman Tasik Puteri

Fees: rm 5 per person (pay to: amir / huda idris)

Things to bring : extra clothes (just in case)
telekung (for sisters)
>yourself<

Attire: as long as cover aurah

Transportation: IIUM Bus (car- for backup)

Aims:
1. To strengthen ukhuwwah between students and community.
2. To teach the people in Rumah Ehsan about Solat and doa.
3. To foster a caring attitude towards the community.
4. Of course, to release all of our stress :)


TENTATIVE

7.30 am: Assemble at T3, Briefing.

8.00 am : Depart from IIUM Kuantan

9.30 am : Arrive at Rumah Ehsan , Briefing from Rumah Ehsan

10.00 am : Activity 1 (beramah mesra dengan warga Rumah Ehsan)

12.00 pm : Activity 2 (membantu warga Rumah Ehsan untuk makan tengahari)

12. 30 pm : Lunch

1.00 pm : Closing ceremony

1.30 pm : Depart from Rumah Ehsan to Mosque , Zohor prayer
Depart to Taman Rekreasi Tasik Puteri

2.00 pm : Arrive at Taman Rekreasi Tasik Puteri , Games

4.30 pm : Asar prayer

5.30 pm: Depart to IIUM Kuantan


*our activity at Taman Rekreasi will be depending on the weather. If it's raining, we might shorten the time there and go home early.


WARD GROUPING





any Q, do leave ur comment. tq

ospe patho. for study purposes only!


Bismillahi walhamdulillah.




breast CA CARCINOMA - having tumor mass and spread to lymph node



colon cancer carcinoma (malignant neoplasia) - have haemorhage and necrosis at the middle of the cancer



leiomyoma of the uterus so the cavity cannot can be seen. the white one is ovary.



clearer view. uterus + colon.



goodluck.

Thursday, November 4, 2010

last call Charity Visit

salam.

this is the final call for any rx8 members that want to add / withdrawn their name from our rx8 charity visit. below are the list name that has agreed to join. if there is any changes, pls inform me (msg / leave comment here) before this SATURDAY. ur coorporation is kindly appreciated. tq!

BROTHERS

1. As-syafiq
2. Rostam
3. Bukhari
4. Safuan
5. Fathullah
6. Amiruddin
7. Aidil
8. Syakirin
9. Ridzuan Zaidi
10. Hilmi
11. Amirul
12. Fawwaz
13. Hazwan
14. Izzat
15. Rezuan Ahmad
16. Fatihi
17. Saufi
18. Pok Jat
19. Mahmud
20. Nazmi
21. Ifdzal
22. Syahmi
23. syafiq halim

SISTERS

1. Khalida
2. Ainul Mardhiyyah
3. Asma’
4. Najihah Che Seman
5. Dhabitah
6. Ruhaini
7. Faiqa
8. Azimah
9. Atikah Huda
10. Rosnani
11. Syafiqah Feisal
12. Liyana Rahman
13. Najihah Azhar
14. Ummu Zahidah
15. Ani
16. Nabihah
17. Latifah
18. Syikin Osman
19. Shikin Sapuan
20. Mutiara
21. Jannah
22. Khadijah
23. Aainaa
24. Solha
25. Liana Rosli
26. Masturah
27. Afifah Shuhardi
28. Zubaidah
29. Hafizah Hasali
30. Ummu adani
31. Huda Zambry
32. Idayu
33. Munawwarah
34. ‘Atiqah Ibrahim
35. Anis
36. Zainab
37. Nazmin
38. Sarah
39. Izzati Kamal
40. Najwa
41. Kak Sa
42. Munirah
43. Fatin Bari’ah
44. Elina
45. Husna
46. Aishah MN
47. Marhabsyah
48. Timi
49. Afifah Osman
50. Fattiyatul
51. Ezaty

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

ENGLISH PLEASE...THIS IS IIUM!

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim..


Assalamulaikum wbt to all brothers and sisters..:)


first of all, congratulation and thanks a lot to Publication and information Bureau (Pub and Info) for creating this blog for us(RX8). this blog has been a very good medium for us to spread any important information, news and messages either from administration or lectures. 


***************************************************

guys, do you still remember our UNGS 2040 class with Dr Hikmatullah last semester? on the first session of the course, Dr hikmatullah did asked us, ''WHY WE CHOOSE IIUM AS OUR TERTIARY EDUCATION INSTITUTION?''
Then i heard some of us said that because, this institution is so international...because of we want to learn english as well as to improve our english..because we want to make friends with people from other countries..and bla..bla..bla..

but, do we really be honest to ourselves when we gave such answers? do we really chose IIUM because we want to improve our English, or because we really want to have friends from other countries? now, we do have a friend from other country, but do we really appreciate him as part of our family? don't we think that sometimes we had discriminate him because he is not a Malaysian and he cannot understand BAHASA MELAYU ? 

IIUM is an international level institution, therefore, we must TRY to fully USE ENGLISH AS OUR DEALING LANGUAGE. isn't that the primary language of IIUM is English? correct me if I'm wrong.
yes, of course all of us do love BAHASA MELAYU as our mother tongue language, but now we are in the international territory which we have to deal with people from different countries. even some most of our lectures are not Malaysian and they don't really understand if we speak in Malay.

i know, and i admit.. for me myself ..most of the time sometimes it's really hard to speak in english and my english are always bad(as you can see now..). but, atleast, please considerate others and try our best to use english when we dealing with formal matters i.e all announcements should be conducted in english, any comment or messages should be in english especially in this blog,class and facebook(RX8 group). 


errr...don't know what to say more...errrr...
Thank you!

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Note Nuclear


Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical (note from senior)
Physicochemical Aspect

Date: 6 August 2010 (tarikh belajar)

Boleh zoom + save